Szkoci zawsze najbardziej zajadli…

Wprawdzie poświęciłem Szkotom już wiele notek, ale nie zawadzi uzupełnić wiedzy o ich opór wobec tzw. emancypacji katolików w Zjednoczonym Królestwie:

„In Great Britain and, separately, in Ireland, the first Relief Act, called the „Papists Act”, was passed in 1778; subject to an oath renouncing Stuart claims to the throne and the civil jurisdiction of the Pope, it allowed Roman Catholics to own property, to inherit land, and to join the army. Reaction against this led to riots in Scotland in 1779 and then the Gordon Riots in London on June 2, 1780. [Ach, ci niezawodni Gordonowie**…]

Further relief was given by an Act of 1782 allowing the establishment of Roman Catholic schools and bishops. The British Roman Catholic Relief Act 1791 was adopted by the Irish Parliament in 1792–93. Since the electoral franchise at the time was largely determined by property, this relief gave the votes to Roman Catholics holding land with a rental value of £2 a year. They also started to gain access to many middle-class professions from which they had been excluded, such as the legal profession, grand jurors, universities and the lower ranks of the army and judiciary. …

Finally, the Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel changed positions and passed the Roman Catholic Relief Act of 1829. This removed many of the remaining substantial restrictions on Roman Catholics throughout the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. However, at the same time the minimum property qualification for voters was increased, rising from a rental value of forty shillings (£2) per annum to £10 per annum, substantially reducing the number of those entitled to vote, although after 1832 the threshold was again lowered in successive Reform Acts. The major beneficiaries were the Roman Catholic middle classes, who could now enter careers in the higher civil service and in the judiciary. The year 1829 is therefore generally regarded as marking the chief moment of Emancipation in Britain and Ireland.”

**) „Lord George Gordon (26 December 1751 – 1 November 1793) was a British politician best known for lending his name to the Gordon Riots of 1780.

A colourful personality, he was born into the Scottish nobility and became a member of parliament for Ludgershall. His life ended after a number of controversies, notably one surrounding his conversion to Judaism for which he was ostracised. He died in Newgate Prison.”


PS. „Parliament passed the Ecclesiastical Titles Act 1851, making it a criminal offence for anyone outside the „united Church of England and Ireland” to use any episcopal title „of any city, town or place, or of any territory or district (under any designation or description whatsoever), in the United Kingdom”. However, this law remained a dead letter and was repealed 20 years later.”


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