Ach, ci „biedni” Szkoci…

From the end of the sixteenth century foreign doctors, many of whom were English or Scots, had been travelling to Russia to practise and to seek their fortune. Emperor Peter the Great (1672-1725), in his endeavours to modernize the Russian state, further encouraged the influx of professional men of all kinds from Westem countries, and by the time of Catherine the Great (1729-1796) it was said that almost every town of any size in Russia had an English or Scots physician or apothecary. Prominent among the long line of such immigrants was Dr John Samuel Rogerson (Figure l), who had
come to Russia on the recommendation of his kinsman Dr James Mountsey (c. 1700-1773), personal physician to Empress Elizabeth, the predecessor of Catherine the Great.” **

DR JAMES MOUNSEY, ‚Chief Director of the Medical Chancery and of the whole
Medical Faculty throughout the whole Russian Empire’was born in Skipmyre, birthplace of William Paterson, founder of the Bank of England. Mounsey served as a physician in Russia for 26 years from I736 to 1762, some of that time as personal physician to the Empress Catherine the Great and her husband Tsar Peter III. lnterestingly, three of Catherine’s doctors came from the Lochmaben area of Dumfriesshire, Dr Matthew Halliday [Born on 12 April 1732, he went to Russia around 1756 to practise as a doctor, although it is not clear how he had become qualified. …He became physician to Empress Catherine the Great and by 1768 was in charge of the St Petersburg inoculation hospital.] and Dr John Rogerson being the other two.

When Tsar Peter was murdered, Mounsey fled from Russia back to Scotland and purchased the ancestral Dumfriesshire estate of the Carruthers family, RAMMERSCALES, near Lockerbie, where he built himself a classical Georgian house of red sandstone overlooking Annandale. Convinced that agents had been sent to kill him by his enemies at the Russian court, Mounsey faked his own death and holed up at Rammerscales, which had been deliberately built with two doors in every room, so that he would have an escape route in the event of trouble. Mounsey’s ghost, ‚Old Jacobus’, is said to haunt the library, and schoolchildren who occupied the house during the Second World War were so spooked they insisted on moving out to the stables.”

A pamiętacie ów gwałtowny zgon „w toalecie” Katarzyny II, zwanej wielką?

Worried by Catherine’s absence, her attendant, Zakhar Zotov, opened the door and peered in. Catherine was sprawled on the floor. Her face appeared purplish, her pulse was weak, and her breathing was shallow and laboured. The servants lifted Catherine from the floor and brought her to the bedroom. Some 45 minutes later, the royal court’s Scottish physician, Dr. John Rogerson, arrived and determined that Catherine had suffered a stroke. Despite all attempts to revive the Empress, she fell into a coma from which she never recovered. Catherine was given the last rites and died the following evening around 9:45.

Co za zbieg okoliczności, iż jej lekarzem był akurat Szkot, ów John Rogerson:

After studying medicine in Edinburgh Rogerson became one of many Scots who travelled to Russia to pursue a medical career. By 1776 he was physician to the Empress, Catherine the Great – one of his duties was the medical inspection of her many lovers for venereal disease. He also became an advisor and diplomat in the Russian court. Rogerson remained in Russia and continued to be employed by Catherine’s successors after her death in 1796. Whilst there he sent many delicacies home to his family in Scotland, such as salted cucumber and reindeer tongues. In 1816, following forty years service, he left St. Petersburg and returned to Scotland after amassing a considerable fortune.

Wszak po nim znów nastał jego ziomek:

In 1790 Wylie was invited to Russia by Dr. John Rogerson (1740—1828), a court physician to Catherine the Great. He entered the Russian service as senior surgeon in the Eletsky Infantry Regiment. Wylie participated in the Polish–Russian War of 1792 and in military operations against the Kościuszko Uprising, culminated in the Battle of Praga. In 1794 he was promoted to staff surgeon.

Retired after the end of the war, Wylie practiced in Saint Petersburg. His reputation grew quickly. Successful operations on Danish ambassador, Baron Otto von Bloom, and later on Count Ivan Kutaisov, the Tsar’s closest confidant, made him Surgeon-in-Ordinary to Paul I in 1799. When Paul I was murdered on 23 March 1801, Wylie embalmed the body and gave a certificate that the cause of death was apoplexy.

In 1804 Alexander I invited Wylie back to military service as Medical Inspector of the Imperial Guard. On 2 December 1805 he accompanied the Tsar during the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1808 Wylie was elected President of the Imperial Medical and Surgical Academy in Saint Petersburg.

Wylie was appointed Inspector General for the Army Board of Health in 1806, and became Director of the Medical Department of the Imperial Ministry of War in 1812. On 7 September 1812 at Borodino he performed about 80 operations on the field. He also attended the mortally wounded General Prince Pyotr Bagration, Commander-in-Chief of the 2nd Russian army. On 27 August 1813 at Dresden he amputated the mortally wounded General Moreau’s legs, which were shattered by a cannon shot as he was talking to the Tsar.

Wylie accompanied Alexander I during his visit to England in 1814, and was knighted by the Prince Regent. On 2 July 1814, at the special request of the Tsar, Whylie was created a baronet in the name and on behalf of George III. On 2 February 1824 his title was recognized by the State Council of the Russian Empire, making him the unique baronet in the country’s history. …

The Scottish doctor continued to enjoy imperial confidence under Alexander’s brother and successor Nicholas I. In general during the Napoleonic wars and the Russo-Turkish war of 1828 — 1829 Wylie took part in more than 50 battles. …

In 1823 Sir James Wylie, being Director of the Medical Department, started the Voenno-Meditsinskii Zhurnal (Journal of Military Medicine), Russia’s major military medical periodic publication. Nowadays it is the oldest Russian peer reviewed scientific journal.

Jakby ich było mało, oto i następny Szkot a carski medyk:

Sir Alexander Crichton (2 December 1763 – 4 June 1856) was a Scottish physician and author.

Born in Newington, Edinburgh, Crichton received his M.D. from Leyden, Holland, in 1785. He developed his medical skills through studies at Paris, Stuttgart, Vienna, and Halle. He returned to London in 1789, becoming MRCS but by 1791 he had moved from surgery, becoming a member of the Royal College of Physicians, and a Fellow of the Linnean Society of Londonin 1793, holding the post of physician at Westminster Hospital between 1794 and 1801.

In 1803, Crichton was invited to become the emperor of Russia’s personal physician, and between 1804 and 1819 was appointed Physician in Ordinary (personal physician) to Tsar Alexander I of Russia and to Maria Feodorovna, the Dowager Empress. He was also head of medical services in that country, receiving several Russian and Prussian honours.

Retiring to England, Crichton wrote several books dealing with medical and geological subjects, becoming a member of the Royal Geographical Society in 1819. Crichton’s extensive collection of minerals consisted mainly of specimens from Siberia, Russia, Norway, Hungary, Germany, the UK, the US and India. These were acquired during his tenure as physician to Alexander I of Russia and during his travels throughout Europe when he was studying medicine.

He was the second person to describe a condition similar to the inattentive subtype of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)… Crichton was one of several people across the country who benefited from the compensation scheme to slave owners after slave ownership was outlawed by the British government in 1833 under the Slavery Abolition Act. Crichton received £4184 0S 1D for 240 enslaved.

**) Dr John Grieve FRS FRSE FSA FRSA (1753-1805) was a Scottish physician who rose to be physician to the Russian royal family. He did much to foster international relationships between Russia and Scotland. His sister Jean [Joan, Joanna?] Grieve married Dr James Mounsey, who also saw service to the Russian royal family. …In 1778 he began service to the Russian Army, firstly based with the Voronezh Division. Returning to Britain in 1783 due to ill-health, he came to some fame through his attempt to introduce the Russian drink of koumiss (fermented mare’s milk) to the country… In 1798 he returned to Russia as personal physician to Tsar Paul I and following the tsar’s death in 1801, physician to Tsar Alexander I and his wife, Empress Elizabeth. In this role he would undoubtedly have come into contact with Matthew Guthrie***, a fellow Scot of very similar background, who was the personal Councillor of the tsar and empress. …

James Grieve was born in Hawick in 1703. Grieve was authorized to practice medicine in Russia in 1734, arriving two years ahead of his contemporary James Mounsey, future archiater to Empress Elizabeth [James był wujem Johna!]… He translated for publication the „History of Kamtschatka,” in 1763 as his Russian service ended. This book details the overland portion of the 1733-1743 exploration into the vast eastern expanses of Asia initiated under Emperor Peter I and concluded during Empress Elizabeth’s reign.

***) Dr Matthew Guthrie FRS FRS FRSE FSA FRSA (1743–1807) was a Scottish physician, mineralogist and traveller who rose to be councillor to the Russian royal family. He made extensive studies of Russian history and folklore, and did much to foster international relationships between Russia and Scotland and promote Russian culture.

His initial role was as physician to the 1st and 2nd Imperial Corps of Noble Cadets in St Petersburg. He was granted a doctorate (MD) in St Petersburg in 1776. He later became a personal Councillor to both Tsar Alexander I and his wife, Empress Elizabeth. …

They had two daughters, Anastasia Jessie Guthrie (1782–1855) and Mary Elizabeth Guthrie (1789–1850). Anastasia married 59-year-old Charles Gascoigne [was a British industrialist at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. He was a partner and manager of the Carron Company ironworks in its early years, but left in 1786, before the company’s success became obvious, to reorganise the production of iron and cannon in Russia. He remained in Russia for 20 years, until his death.] in 1797 when she was only 15.

___

PS. Robert Erskine (1677–1718) was an advisor to Tsar Peter the Great. He became one of the Tsar’s most powerful advisors. He engaged in medical studies in Edinburgh, Paris and Utrecht and was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1703. He arrived in Russia in 1704. Head of the entire medical chancellery, he was the Tsar’s chief physician****. He was so influential that he was appointed the first director of the St. Petersburg Kunstkamera and library. In 1716, the Tsar elevated him to privy councillor. Robert Erskine was a part of masonic network of Scottish Jacobites that influenced the Russian court.

****) When Robert Erskine, the Tsar’s Scottish-born personal physician, died in 1718, Blumentrost was appointed to the position. He kept Johann Daniel Schumacher, Erskine’s assistant who had studied at the University of Strasbourg and had been in charge of the Imperial Library and the Kunstkamera under Erskine, on as his secretary… Empress Anna did not trust Blumentrost, mainly because of his devotion to the two daughters of Peter the Great and Catherine, Anna and Elizabeth. When Elizabeth became Empress, he came back into royal favour. She reinstated his rank of State Councillor and raised his salary. …Blumentrost’s brothers Ivan (Johannes Deodatus or Johann Deodat; 1676–1756) and Christian were also court physicians. Ivan was also personal physician to Peter I (and his field physician and archiater) and had also studied in Halle and Leiden. He fell out of favour under Empress Anna and died in poverty in 1756; he is buried in the same grave with Laurentius.

PS2. Count Jacob or James Daniel Bruce (Russian: Граф Яков Вилимович Брюс, Graf Yakov Vilimovich Bryus; 11 May 1669 – 30 April 1735) was a Russian statesman, military leader and scientist of Scottish descent (Clan Bruce), one of the associates of Peter the Great. According to his own record, his ancestors had lived in Russia since 1649. He was the brother of Robert Bruce, the first military governor of Saint Petersburg.

Robert Bruce (Russian: Роман Вилимович Брюс, Roman Vilimovich Bruce; 1668–1720) was the first chief commander of Saint Petersburg. Of Scottish descent, he was the brother of Jacob Bruce and father of Alexander Romanovich Bruce. etc.

 

 

Reklamy

3 myśli na temat “Ach, ci „biedni” Szkoci…”

Skomentuj

Wprowadź swoje dane lub kliknij jedną z tych ikon, aby się zalogować:

Logo WordPress.com

Komentujesz korzystając z konta WordPress.com. Wyloguj / Zmień )

Zdjęcie z Twittera

Komentujesz korzystając z konta Twitter. Wyloguj / Zmień )

Zdjęcie na Facebooku

Komentujesz korzystając z konta Facebook. Wyloguj / Zmień )

Zdjęcie na Google+

Komentujesz korzystając z konta Google+. Wyloguj / Zmień )

Connecting to %s