N1 – seria nieudanych radzieckich rakiet nośnych, mających wynieść kosmonautów na Księżyc. Programem ich budowy kierował aż do śmierci w styczniu 1966 roku Siergiej Korolow, zastąpiony potem przez Wasilija Miszyna. …
3 lipca 1969: Awaria silników stopnia 1 podczas startu na wysokości ok. 150 m. Kawałek metalu dostał się do pompy utleniacza, co wywołało eksplozję w jednym z silników pierwszego stopnia. Wybuch uszkodził przewody paliwowe sąsiednich silników, ogień gwałtownie się rozprzestrzenił i rakieta przewróciła się niszcząc cały kompleks startowy. Obecnie wiadomo, że przez niedbalstwo techników znalazła się w niej przypadkowa nakrętka. 2735-tonowa konstrukcja runęła na ziemię i eksplodowała. W raporcie z badań przyczyny katastrofy stwierdzono – że silnik jest „jest wrażliwy na obce ciała”. Ten nieudany start był przyczyną rezygnacji z wystrzelenia na Księżyc statku załogowego z Leonowem na pokładzie.”
Ów zaiste kosmiczny rok 1969 wg wiki:
January 2 – Australian media baron Rupert Murdoch purchases the largest-selling British Sunday newspaper, The News of the World.
January 12 – Led Zeppelin, the first Led Zeppelin album, is released in the United States.
January 16 – Student Jan Palach sets himself on fire in Prague’s Wenceslas Square to protest the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia; 3 days later he dies.
January 20 – Richard Nixon is sworn in as the 37th President of the United States.
37th President Richard M. Nixon
January 22 – An assassination attempt is carried out on Leonid Brezhnev by deserter Viktor Ilyin. One person is killed, several are injured. Brezhnev escaped unharmed.
January 26 – Elvis Presley steps into American Studios in Memphis, Tennessee, recording „Long Black Limousine”, thus beginning the recording of what becomes his landmark comeback sessions for the albums From Elvis in Memphis and Back in Memphis. The sessions yield the popular and critically acclaimed singles „Suspicious Minds”, „In the Ghetto”, and „Kentucky Rain”.
January 27 – Fourteen men, 9 of them Jews, are executed in Baghdad for spying for Israel.
January 30 – The Beatles give their last public performance, of several tracks on the roof of Apple Records, London (featured in Let It Be (1970 film)).
February 4 – In Cairo, Yasser Arafat is elected Palestine Liberation Organization leader at the Palestinian National Congress.
February 9 – The Boeing 747 makes its maiden flight at Everett, Washington.
March 17 – Golda Meir becomes the first female prime minister of Israel.
March 20 – John Lennon and Yoko Ono are married at Gibraltar, and proceed to their honeymoon „Bed-In” for peace in Amsterdam.
April 28 – Charles de Gaulle steps down as president of France after suffering defeat in a referendum the day before.
May 14 – Colonel Muammar Gaddafi visits Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
May 25 – Midnight Cowboy, an X-rated, Oscar-winning John Schlesinger film, is released.
June 5 – An international communist conference begins in Moscow.
June 20 – Georges Pompidou is elected President of France.
July 3 – Brian Jones, musician and founder of The Rolling Stones, drowns in his swimming pool at his home in Sussex, England.
July 16 – Apollo program: Apollo 11 (Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, Michael Collins) lifts off toward the first landing on the Moon.
July 18 – Chappaquiddick incident – Edward M. Kennedy drives off a bridge on his way home from a party on Chappaquiddick Island, Massachusetts. Mary Jo Kopechne, a former campaign aide to his brother, dies in the early morning hours of July 19 in the submerged car.
July 20 – Apollo program: The lunar module Eagle/Apollo 11 lands on the lunar surface. An estimated 500 million people worldwide watch in awe as Neil Armstrong takes his historic first steps on the Moon at 10:56 pm ET (02:56 UTC July 21), the largest television audience for a live broadcast at that time.
July 22 – Spanish dictator and head of state Francisco Franco appoints Prince Juan Carlos his successor.
July 24 – The Apollo 11 astronauts return from the first successful Moon landing, and are placed in biological isolation for several days, on the chance they may have brought back lunar germs. The airless lunar environment is later determined to preclude microscopic life.
The Soviet Union returns Gerald Brooke to the United Kingdom in exchange for spies Peter and Helen Kroger (Morris and Lona Cohen).
August 9 – Followers of Charles Manson murder Sharon Tate, (who was 8 months pregnant), and her friends: Folgers coffee heiress Abigail Folger, Wojciech Frykowski, and Hollywood hairstylist Jay Sebring at the home of Tate and her husband, Roman Polanski, in Los Angeles. Also killed is Steven Parent, leaving from a visit to the Polanski’s caretaker. More than 100 stab wounds are found on the victims, except for Parent, who had been shot almost as soon as the Manson Family entered the property.
August 10 – The Manson Family kills Leno and Rosemary LaBianca, wealthy Los Angeles businessman and his wife.
August 13 – Serious border clashes occur between the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China.
August 14 – British troops are deployed in Northern Ireland following the three-day Battle of the Bogside.
August 15–August 18 – The Woodstock Festival is held in upstate New York, featuring some of the top rock musicians of the era.
August 17 – Category 5 Hurricane Camille, the most powerful tropical cyclonic system at landfall in history, hits the Mississippi coast, killing 248 people and causing US$1.5 billion in damage (1969 dollars).
August 20 – Strong violence on demonstration in Prague and Brno, Czechoslovakia. Military force contra citizens. Prague spring finally beaten.
August 29 – A Trans World Airlines flight from Rome to Tel Aviv is hijacked and diverted to Syria.
September 1 – 1969 Libyan coup d’état: A bloodless coup in Libya ousts King Idris, and brings Colonel Muammar Gaddafi to power.
September 26 – The Beatles release their Abbey Road album which is an enormous commercial success and, although receiving mixed reviews at this time, comes to be viewed by many as the group’s best.
October 1 – In Sweden, Olof Palme is elected Leader of the Social Democratic Worker’s Party, replacing Tage Erlander as Prime Minister on October 14.
October 5 – Monty Python’s Flying Circus first airs on BBC One.
October 21 – Willy Brandt becomes Chancellor of West Germany.
October 25 – Pink Floyd release their Ummagumma album.
October 31 – Wal-Mart incorporates as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
November 10 – Sesame Street aired its first episode on the NET network.
November 15 – Cold War: The Soviet submarine K-19 collides with the American submarine USS Gato in the Barents Sea.
Vietnam War: In Washington, D.C., 250,000–500,000 protesters stage a peaceful demonstration against the war, including a symbolic „March Against Death”.
Regular colour television broadcasts begin on BBC1 and ITV in the United Kingdom.
November 21 – The first ARPANET link is established (the progenitor of the global Internet). The United States Senate votes down the Supreme Court nomination of Clement Haynsworth, the first such rejection since 1930.
Summer – Invention of Unix under the potential name „Unics” (after Multics).
The first strain of the AIDS virus (HIV) migrates to the United States via Haiti.