Szwedzka (ponura) zagadka

Szwedzi „od zawsze” grali na nerwach Londynowi, który wprawdzie ich mocno wspierał, ale zawsze też musiał mocno ich „korygować”… Przypominam wielką wściekłość Jakuba I z 1610, no i korektę za naszego Jana III po szaleństwach szwedzkiego potopu – jak można było tak kompletnie rozwalić ważny rynek handlu i w dodatku zdestabilizować cały region?

„Ostateczna” korekta nastąpiła w 1718 wraz z żydowskim desantem o którym niżej, ale dręczy mnie jedna zagadka. Dlaczego, mimo wszystko, stosunki szwedzko-żydowskie są aż tak złe? Czy chodzi o jakieś „rozliczenia” za II wojnę światową, czy jest to jednak coś jeszcze głębszego?

Skąd to „mimo wszystko”? A choćby stąd, iż duża część rynku medialnego w Szwecji jest od dawna w rękach zasłużonych żydowskich rodów i jest to fakt powszechnie znany, włącznie z ważnym w nim udziałem polskich, po-marcowych imigrantów z 1968.

Symbolem owego problemu jest, z jednej strony, Olof Palme  – socjalistyczny do bólu polityk szwedzki, którego zabito w 1986 w niewyjaśnionych do dzisiaj okolicznościach** – polecam tu artykuł o nim Krystyny Murat czyli pink panther, w szwedzkiej Szkole Nawigatorów. To właśnie Palme był tym najważniejszym rzecznikiem roszczeń palestyńskich wobec Izraela (a rodzina królewska, jak dotąd,  Izraela nigdy nie odwiedziła…)***.

Przykład z drugiej strony, to znana szeroko działalność Barbary Spectre – przede wszystkim jej szokująco szczere wypowiedzi nt. przyszłości tzw. Szwecji, czy może po prostu Nowej Szwecji? Barbara Spectre, wprawdzie teraz nieco już w cieniu, ale dalej prężnie działa w organizacji Paideia, także w Polsce. A jej słowa z 2012 (?) stały się bardzo aktualne w świetle tzw. kryzysu imigranckiego w Europie, i w Szwecji w szczególności. W 1984 pani Spectre założyła instytut nomenomen Szechtera, ale nawiązuje on do myśli Salomona z Ameryki, a nie do ojca Adasia z Czerskiej, bynajmniej…

***

Definitywny koniec dobrej passy nastąpił w 1718, kiedy to Bank amsterdamski ewidentnie pokonał Bank szwedzki:

„Trudności spotkały Szwedów już na samym początku kampanii. Maszerując przez pogranicze litewsko-mazowieckie, zbagatelizowali zagrożenie ze strony rdzennej ludności – Kurpiów. Stosując partyzancką walkę w puszczach Kurpiowszczyzny, zadali oni poważne straty armii szwedzkiej. Karol XII stracił ok. 1000 ludzi, kilka tysięcy koni oraz sporą ilość wozów taborowych. Po porażce w 1708 pod Leśną Szwedzi skierowali się na Ukrainę. Tam połączyli się ze zbuntowanym przeciwko Rosji hetmanem kozackim Iwanem Mazepą. Karol XII odniósł ranę podczas oblężenia Połtawy. Po klęsce pod Połtawą poniesionej w 1709 w starciu z wojskami Piotra I [Wielkiego], uciekł do Turcji, gdzie został internowany w Benderach. Namówił sułtana do ataku na Rosję (1710). Po zwycięstwie Turcji i zawarciu pokoju rosyjsko-tureckiego w Adrianopolu, został wydalony z Mołdawii w 1713. W przebraniu przedostał się do Szwecji.

Po przystąpieniu kolejnych państw do koalicji antyszwedzkiej Karol XII kontynuował wojnę. Zaatakował należącą do Danii Norwegię. Zginął w roku 1718 trafiony w głowę kulą karabinową podczas oblężenia twierdzy Fredrikshald w Norwegii.”

A co do pobytu Karola XII w Turcji:

„The Turks initially welcomed the Swedish king, who managed to provoke a war between the Ottomans and the Russians. His expenses during his long stay in the Ottoman Empire were covered by the Ottoman state budget, as part of the fixed assets (Demirbaş in Turkish), hence his nickname Demirbaş Şarl (Fixed Asset Charles) in Turkey. Demirbaş, the Turkish word for fixed asset, is literally ironhead (demir = iron, baş = head), which is the reason why this nickname has often been translated as Ironhead Charles. Eventually a small village named Karlstad had to be built near Bender to accommodate the ever growing Swedish population there. Sultan Ahmet III, as a gesture to the King, had bought some of the Swedish women and children put up for sale by the Russians and turned them over to the Swedes, thus further strengthening the growing community of Caroleans.

However, the sultan Ahmed III’s subjects in the empire eventually got tired of Charles’ scheming. His entourage also accumulated huge amounts of debts with Bender merchants. Eventually „crowds” of townspeople attacked the Swedish colony at Bender and Charles had to defend himself against the mobs and the Ottoman Janissaries involved. This uprising was called „kalabalık” (Turkish for crowd) which afterwards found a place in Swedish lexicon referring to a ruckus. The Janissaries did not shoot Charles during the skirmish at Bender, but captured him and put him under house-arrest at Dimetoka (nowadays Didimoticho) and Constantinople. During his semi-imprisonment the King played chess and studied the Ottoman Navy and the naval architecture of the Ottoman galleons. His sketches and designs eventually led to the famous Swedish war ships Jarramas (Yaramaz) and Jilderim (Yıldırım).”

… to zakończył się on spektakularnym posunięciem:

The history of the Jews in Sweden probably began with arrivals from the Hanseatic League in medieval times, but there are no records. In the Elizabethan era, it was common for European royalty to have Jewish doctors at court, and there is a record of a Jewish doctor who served Gustav Vasa in the 16th century.

Church records at Stockholm Cathedral record several Jewish families entering Sweden and being baptised into the Lutheran Church, a condition at that time imposed upon any Jew who desired to settle in Sweden. …

King Carl XII (1697–1718) spent five years with an encampment in the Turkish town of Bender and accumulated a large number of debts there for his entourage. Jewish and Muslim creditors followed him to Sweden, and the Swedish law was altered so that they could hold religious services and circumcise their male progeny.

In 1680 the Jews of Stockholm petitioned the king that they be permitted to reside there without abandoning their creed, but the application was denied because the local consistory had refused to endorse it. On December 3, 1685, Charles XI ordered the governor-general of the capital to see to it that no Jews were permitted to settle in Stockholm, or in any other part of the country, „on account of the danger of the eventual influence of the Jewish religion on the pure evangelical faith.” In case Jews were found in any Swedish community, they were to be notified to leave within fourteen days.

Through court patronage Jewish merchants were occasionally appointed royal purveyors. During his bellicose reign, King Charles XII (a.k.a. Karl XII) usually had one or more wealthy Jews with him in the field as the paymaster(s) of his army.

In 1718, Jews obtained permission to settle in the kingdom without need to abjure their religion. …

After the death of Charles XII in 1718, the Swedish government was financially embarrassed for a long time and the royal household was often relieved from pecuniary difficulties by the Jewish merchants of Stockholm who insisted, in exchange, for the granting of additional privileges to themselves and their coreligionists. As a consequence the concession of 1718 was renewed and supplemented by royal edicts of 1727, 1746, and 1748, but permission was restricted to settlement in smaller cities and rural communities. One of the most prominent Jews in Sweden at this time was the convert Lovisa Augusti, who became one of the most popular singers on the stage in Stockholm.

In 1782 an ordinance was issued (juderegelemente) – due particularly to efforts of the prominent Liberal Anders Chydenius – by which Jews were restricted to reside in one of four towns: Stockholm, Gothenburg, Norrköping. To these was added the town of Landskrona, as a Jew had established there a factory for the manufacture of sails and naval uniforms. They were not permitted to trade in markets elsewhere or to own property. Jews were ineligible for government positions and election to Parliament. They were forbidden from converting Lutherans to the Jewish religion.

The government was desirous of attracting wealthy Jews to the country, but it was equally careful to keep out itinerant door-to-door sellers of trinkets, quite a number of whom had in previous years entered Sweden from Germany. Any foreign Jew who landed in Sweden was accordingly required to report, within eight days of his arrival, to the local authorities, and to produce his passport and a certificate of character, as well as a statement of his purpose in coming to the country. These certificates were issued by the elders of the congregation to which the immigrant belonged in his native country, and had to be verified by the municipal authorities of the place in which the immigrant had last resided. If the certificates were unsatisfactory, the authorities were at liberty to expel the holder; but in case he was admitted he was directed to Stockholm, Gothenburg, or Norrköping. Jews who were residents of the country prior to the promulgation of this ordinance were called upon to present their certificates of character to the proper authorities, together with a statement setting forth in which city they desired to settle and make their living. The ordinance enumerated the different trades the Jews were permitted to follow, and it stipulated also that they should apprentice their sons to Swedish tradesmen in one of the three cities mentioned above. In order to prevent the overcrowding of the mercantile field it was prescribed that no foreign-born Jew should be allowed to start in business unless he possessed at least 2,000 Swedish riksdaler in cash or negotiable securities; a native-born Jew need have only 1,000 riksdaler. Rabbis were exempt, and according to previous ordinances, poor Jews were to be deported from the country.

As to the retail business, the Jews were prohibited from selling victuals, liquor, and drugs, and they were permitted to retail their special articles of food, wine, kosher meat, matzot, etc., among themselves only. Furthermore, the Jewish retail dealer was not permitted to offer his goods for sale in markets outside the city in which he was located (permission was only given to reside in Stockholm, Gothenburg, Landskrona and Norrköping) and he was compelled to conduct his business in open shops and was forbidden to peddle from house to house or in the streets.”

**) żoną Palmego była Lizbet, wnuczka Elisabet De Geer:

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisbet_Palme

„władców” Szwecji, czyli klan De Geer muszę jeszcze tu przypomnieć, tymczasem inna skoligacona z nimi a sławna ofiara:

http://boson.szkolanawigatorow.pl/straszliwa-walka-o-najbogatsza-reke-w-rzplitej-czyli-ta-niesamowita-lady-di

zatem można snuć domysły, iż gwałtowne zgony lady Di i Olofa P. to wynik wojny super klanów – Rotszyldowego z De Geer…

***) no, no… czyżby prośba o litość?

http://www.paideia-eu.org/2018/02/02/paideias-founding-director-barbara-spectre-receives-the-kings-medal/

Reklamy

3 myśli na temat “Szwedzka (ponura) zagadka”

  1. O Szwecji się nie wypowiadam. To Twoja specjalność.
    A zniszczony potopem obszar sięgał az fo Księstwa Siewierskiego. Mam różne dane, co do rozmiarów upadku. Min załamanie się handlu zbożem zmusiło moją rodzinę do przeprowadzki. Niedaleko, w obrębie Księstwa, Ale….już tak nie prosperowali. Bo potem ciągle było coś następnego.
    Jak się raz zniszczy. ..
    A to zaląźek polskiego mieszczanstwa …rodowicie polskiego….
    .

    Polubienie

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