Сочинение о Московском государстве в середине xvii столетия Григория Котошихина Автограф Скоропись xvii века
Dopiero co pisałem o ważnym, angielskim raporcie z Rosji w kluczowym dla nas XVII wieku, no i teraz wypada mi to uzupełnić ówczesnym, ruskim raportem dla Szwedów. I znowu przychodzi mi skorzystać z pracy M. Poe – tym razem chodzi o Grigorija Kotoszychina i jego słynne dzieło:
„In a diplomatic report dated April 19, 1660, he had mistakenly omitted the word “master” [gosudar’] from the tsar’s very long and complicated title. An innocent mistake made by a trusted clerk who had by then served the tsar for over 15 years. He was beaten with rods. So naturally it never occurred to Kotoshikhin or any other Muscovite to write a tell-all description of Russian politics, at least while they were in Russia. Happily for us (though unhappily for him, as we will soon see), Kotoshikhin elected to jump the border and head for Poland in the Fall of 1664. Perhaps he was tired of being beaten with rods for trifling clerical errors. More likely, he was afraid of being found out as a Swedish spy, which he was. As an ambassadorial clerk, Kotoshikhin attended summits in which the Muscovites, Swedes, and Polish-Lithuanians attempted to settle their long-standing differences, or at least talk about settling them. He had thereby seen Vilna, Dorpat, Revel, and even Stockholm. These were cities quite unlike any in Russia proper. They no doubt impressed Kotoshikhin mightily. He had also had the opportunity to mix with some heady company: Swedish dukes, Polish counts, Lithuanian lords, men often of great refinement and largess. These contacts, too, apparently had an effect on the Russian clerk. And of course he was a young man, and young men are prone to adventurous, dangerous and all-too-often foolish undertakings. Just when the idea of defection emerged in Kotoshikhin’s mind we do not know. We do know, however, that by the Summer of 1663 he was selling diplomatic information to a Swedish diplomat named Adolf Ebers …
The Polish King, Jan Casimir, was only too happy to grant Kotoshikhin a royal salary [=sto rubli?] and set him up in Vilna. By all appearances, though, it wasn’t a good match. Kotoshikhin remained in Poland long enough to adopt a Polish name (Jan Selickij), but soon decamped. He first traveled to Silesia, then to Prussia, and finally to Lübeck. Why he left Poland when he did, and why he took this particular journey, remains a mystery. By October 1665, Kotoshikhin had made his way to the Baltic city of Narva, then under the Swedes. In an embarrassing petition, he claimed that he had really wanted to serve the Swedish crown all along, but had been held against his will by the dastardly Poles [He adopted the name of Ivan-Alexander Selitsky and converted to Protestantism. On November 24, 1665, the Swedish king issued a special decree appointing him a salary of 200 ricksdallers in silver]…”
Oto fragment owego dzieła pt. On Russia during the Reign of Alexey Mikhailovich (first published in 1840) nt. oficjalnych tytułów dyplomatycznych i odpowiednich form epistolograficznych:
« 1. To the Holy Roman Emperor: “Through the tender mercy of our God, whereby the dayspring from on high has visited us and had guided our feet into the way of peace, by the grace of our God glorified in the Trinity, we, the great sovereign and tsar,” then follows the tsar’s name and his full title, and after [his] title the emperor’s name and title, followed by the message. The letters are written on the largest Alexandrine paper. The flowered ornaments are large and drawn in gold.
2. To His Majesty the King of Sweden: “By the grace of God we, the great sovereign and tsar,” then likewise his name and full title, and after the tsar’s title His Royal Majesty’s name and full title, followed by the message. The letters are written on small or medium Alexandrine paper, depending upon the length of the letter; the flowered ornaments are likewise medium size and drawn in gold.
3. To the King of Poland: “By the grace of God glorified in the Trinity we, the great sovereign and tsar,” and then his name and title; then the title of the King of Poland: “To our beloved brother the the most serene great sovereign,” and his name and title. The letters are written on large and medium paper; the flowered ornaments are of medium size and in gold.
4. To the King of England is written likewise; and he is styled in the same way as the King of Poland.
5. To the King of Denmark [the tsar] uses the same title as to the kings of Poland and England; and the King of Denmark is addressed: “To our beloved brother and neighbor,” on medium or small paper, the flowered ornaments likewise of medium size in gold.
6. To the electors and princes and counts [of the Holy Roman Empire] and to the States-General of Holland is written: “By the grace of God, from the great sovereign and tsar,” then likewise his name and full title; and then: “From our tsarist majesty N. to the elector [or] prince [or] count [or] States,” and their titles. The letters are written on small Alexandrine paper; the flowered ornaments are in gold, at the top, above the text, and not along the sides.
7. To Lübeck or Hamburg, to the burgomasters and councilors, and likewise to the merchants who serve as agents in the tsar’s trade: “By the grace of God,” in the same way as to the electors and princes, on small Alexandrine paper, without any ornament but only the initial word of gold. »
« And while they are trading company men [gosti] they likewise take turns in carrying out the tsar’s service as heads and secretaries in the sable treasury and in the collection of monetary revenues. And there are close to 30 of these men; and each of them carries on trade to the amount of 20 and 40 and 50 and 100,000 rubles a year.
2. The trading [gostinaia] and cloth workers’ [sukhotnaia] guilds [sotni] have been organized in this way: [their members] serve as sworn officials [tseloval’niki], associates of the trading company men [gosti] in the collection of the tsar’s revenues in Moscow and in the provinces, and they likewise carry on their own trade and engage in various enterprises, and they are allowed freely to keep various kinds of liquor in their homes; but they are forbidden to buy or keep peasants. And there are about 200 of these men. …
In the town of Archangel there is trade in grain, hemp, potash, resin, raw silk, and rhubarb. And such grain is collected in the regions of the littoral and the lower and middle Volga, from the district peasants of black districts [slobody], and such grain and hemp is likewise bought in many towns, with money from the tsar’s treasury, from the Chancellery of the Great Revenue; and it is exchanged with visiting foreigners for various goods and sold for money.
Potash and resin works; these have been established in the tsar’s wild forests in the Ukraine; likewise [such enterprises] have been leased to boyars and okol’nichie and Duma men and closest men and trading company men [gosti] and trading men in these same forests or in others belonging to the tsar; and in addition to the [payment for the] lease every tenth barrel of potash and resin is taken for the tsar. And these goods grain, hemp, potash, resin — are brought to the town of Archangel by the tsar’s post transport, and by hired [transport]. Rhubarb is sent from Siberia, where it is collected from local inhabitants. …
With Persian merchants [there is trade] in raw and processed silk, and in various local goods, in Astrakhan’ and Kazan’ and Moscow. And those Persian goods are evaluated according to the local prices which have been paid for them in Persia; and in Moscow sables and other furs are given from the tsar’s treasury for those goods, and those furs and evaluated at a premium as compared with their distribution [value]. And when those merchants come to Astrakhan’ and Kazan’ and Moscow, they are given the tsar’s bounty of food and drink for the duration of their stay, and vessels in which to go by water, and rowers, without cost.
4. Greek merchants; they come to Moscow each year and bring various goods with them: gold and silver vessels for food and drink with precious stones and diamonds and sapphires and emeralds and rubles, and gold garments and horses’ equipment — saddles and bits and bridles and horsecloths with various precious stones, and diadems and bracelets and earrings and rings, likewise with various precious stones, for the tsaritsa and tsarevnas, in large number.
And upon arrival they present these goods to the tsar as gifts; and afterwards these goods are evaluated by trading men, foreigners and [native] masters, on the basis of local Turkish prices; and in return they are likewise given sables and [other] furs. And each year a large quantity of such goods is bought, because no one of boyar or any other rank, but only the tsar, is allowed to buy [them], and they come into the tsar’s treasury without cost, as it were.
And there are 50 or 100 of these Greek merchants each year, and for selling [their goods] they remain in Moscow for many years’ duration, and are given sufficient quantities of food and drink. For if the goods which they present to the tsar are not suitable for the tsar’s treasury, these goods are returned to them and they are free to sell them to men of every rank.»